Bunkar Vikas Samiti (UMBVS) is a community-based organization
that has succeeded in improving the social and economic status of
handweavers in villages of Western Rajasthan. This article gives a narrative
account of the formation of UMBVS and the changes in circumstances among
traditional pit loom weavers who have joined UMBVS and received training in
the weaving of new products for urban markets. The vision and persistent
efforts of key leaders have helped UMBVS to thrive despite many challenges,
not only in product and market development but also in generating the trust
and participation essential to community development. The article includes
the background of chief executive Ram Chandra Barupal whose commitment has
helped weavers break the constraints of poverty. The author's experience at
the Urmul Phalodi Weavers' Centre and nearby villages conveys the atmosphere
of the place and the voices of the people.
Freedoms in Rajasthan
industrious artisans were once the backbone of Indian economy, providing
much of the goods and services that our people needed. Today these artisans
have been marginalized by the modernization and industrialization of
society. Though some have managed to adapt to changing times and a few have
even thrived, most of them live in abject poverty with no hopes for a better
tomorrow. (1995, Status Report of India's Artisans)
Bunkar Vikas Samiti (UMBVS) is a grass roots organization in rural Rajasthan
that is well-known in
India for improving the economic status of handweavers and contributing to
the survival of traditional crafts. In a relatively short period of time,
UMBVS evolved into a thriving community-based organization
by building on traditional crafts skills and knowledge and bridging the gap
between rural artisans and urban consumers. As a consequence of integrating
craft and community development weavers and their families are finding new
freedoms and possibilities.
UMBVS is one
among many craft development organizations in India that are confronting the
enormous challenges of establishing sustainable employment within viable
craft communities. To name but a few others: Dastkar Andhra in Andhra
Pradesh, SEWA Luchnow in Uttar Pradesh, REHWA Society in Madhya Pradesh and
Jawaja Weavers' Association in Rajasthan are several examples of
organizations that address the needs of handweavers and help create
conditions for sustainable social and economic development. It is my
intention in this article to examine one such organization. I focus on the
story of the Urmul weavers, including, the emergence and development of
UMBVS, the role of chief executive Ram Chandra Barupal, and events I
experienced during my visits to weaving villages. The common aims and
challenges among different craft development organizations will be pursued
in another article.
I arrived in
Jodphur, Rajasthan, with my husband after an eleven hour overnight bus ride,
526 kilometres northwest of Ahmedabad in the state of Gujarat. The next
morning David and I travelled four more hours by train to Phalodi, 125
kilometres away. We sat on wooden benches; open windows let in the warm
November air. Going west from Jodhpur we entered a vast expanse of sparsely
vegetated land. We passed dry cultivated fields and sweeping sand dunes and
the train stopped at each town along our route. Men in white dhoti's and
turbans and women in colourful saris sat with us on the train.
I had arrived
for my first time in India nine weeks earlier to begin research sponsored by
a fellowship from the Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute.
My intention was to investigate community- based initiatives that support
the continuity of handweaving skills and knowledge in India. I wanted to
learn about innovative education and development projects that involved
handweavers. Beginning in New Delhi and continuing in Ahmedabad at the
National Institute of Design, I talked with many people who were
knowledgeable about the complex problems faced by handweavers in India. Now,
I was on my way to Phalodi to visit a weavers' organization that I heard was
exemplary as a development initiative.
arrived at Phalodi station and we hired an auto rickshaw to take us to the
outskirts of town where Urmul Phalodi Weavers' Centre was located. We were
greeted warmly at the entrance to a large stone-built complex
and taken to a guest room on the second floor that opened onto a large
balcony. Within a few moments of settling into our room, a student from the
National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) in Delhi came to tell us
that a jeep was leaving shortly for one of the weavers' villages and we were
welcome to come along. After a meal together, I climbed into the back of the
jeep with the four students and we rode along a narrow highway, bouncing
over potholes and raised sections of the road. Speaking loudly over the
noise of the jeep, I learned that the students were doing a Craft
Documentation Project, travelling from village to village in Rajasthan
studying traditional handicrafts.
of Western Rajasthan
twenty miles we turned off the main road onto a one lane paved road. Soon we
were following a track across dry sandy soil, with the jeep kicking up dust
until we stopped next to several mud houses with thatched roofs.
We were taken to
where a weaver worked. Hundreds of fine black warp threads stretched
parallel a few inches above the ground, extending approximately fifteen feet
from the weaver's sitting position in a thatched roof shelter. A young man,
seated on a thin cushion on the ground, passed a shuttle of fine black
cotton back and forth across the width of the warp. With his feet, the
weaver operated treadles located in a small pit dug in the earth below the
loom. The treadle action moved the loom harnesses which separate different
groups of warp threads. With skilful fingers, the weaver quickly manipulated
the yarn to make detailed design motifs in a black and white fabric.
This weaver was
one of twelve men from his village of Bengiti who had been trained at the
Weavers' Centre and become members of UMBVS. Traditionally the weavers of
this area wove plain cotton cloth for pattus (shawls) or woolen dhurries for
floor coverings, working on traditional two foot wide pitlooms that are used
extensively in India. During three months of training at Phalodi, they
learned to weave new designs on looms of three, four or five foot width.
They also learned about the aims of UMBVS. On completing their training,
weavers could buy a new wider loom at half price and they were given yarns
to start weaving designs on order.
Although many of
the weavers of Bengiti were away from the village working in the fields
until evening, we were taken to see one other weaver. A woman in purdah,
face covered with a bright yellow fabric, was sitting at a pitloom just
outside the door of her house, weaving a two foot wide piece with no design
details. She had learned to weave five months earlier when three women from
the village took part in the first UMBVS weaving training program for women.
Traditionally, men are weavers in most regions of India and women help by
doing the tasks of winding yarn and making the warp. However, when women
expressed interest to join UMBVS and learn to weave, a new training program
We returned to
Phalodi as the sun was setting. Skeins of coloured yarn were spread out to
dry all along the balcony railing of the Weavers' Centre. That evening, Ram
Chandra Barupal, Chief Executive, and Revata Ram, manager of income
generation programs, visited us. With one of the NIFT students translating,
we learned that two people who worked for Urmul spoke English and they would
be arriving the following day. The fact that none of the managers of UMBVS
know English is considered a problem for the organization because English is
the language for dealing with the outside world.
morning, smells wafted up from juniper wood fires heating huge metal dye
vats. We watched as two strong young men lifted a heavy metal rod holding
about ten skeins of hot wet yarn that had been submerged in the vat. They
carried the dripping weight over to a rack and then repeated these motions
with three more rods full of dyed yarn. Then, wearing long rubber gloves,
they washed each skein in soapy water, squeezing out the remaining water.
Supervised by the dye manager, these men had learned the exacting process of
yarn dyeing, and each month dyed approximately 120 kilograms of yarn needed
by weavers to fill orders.
In another room
four men worked cutting woven cloth into sections for cushion covers,
measuring and joining fronts to backs, and sewing finished edges. Across the
hall, there was a storeroom with floor-to-ceiling shelves
of colourful woven products, such as shawls, bedspreads, cushion covers and
upholstery material. In this room, the stock manager receives new products
from the villages and, after quality checking, ships the pieces to fill
orders in metropolitan areas.
training area, a large room at the back of the building, was temporarily
being used for making door and window frames for a new weavers' centre in
Pokhran about sixty kilometres away. The Phalodi Weavers' Centre had become
too small for the growing organization and a new much larger building was
Marusthali Bunkar Vikas Samiti
registered in January 1991, UMBVS began with seventy weavers from six
villages. In 1997, membership had grown to one hundred and fifty weavers
from thirteen villages in three districts of West Rajasthan. Weaving is
central to the organization and other activities include: a women's
development program, an integrated rural development program, and the
implementation of an extensive education program in conjunction with the
inception, the vision of UMBVS has been: "To establish a society free of
inequalities and oppression." The mission is "To organize the target group
and help them to participate freely in all aspects of their development by
making them more aware of their rights; to keep traditional craft alive by
upgrading their skills." The goals are to free weavers from exploitation by
traders and middlemen, provide alternative marketing support and regular
remunerative employment, and to bring about social and economic development,
including the preservation of art and culture in a professionally managed
environment (UMBVS unpublished report, 1997).
began training weavers to make new designs and establishing markets to sell
their products, weavers in many villages had stopped weaving. Some of them
had been investing money in yarn, dyeing the yarn, weaving, and then taking
their products to markets. Sometimes their work would sell, but often they
lost their investment and had to take out loans from money lenders, which
resulted in the loss of some of their belongings. Some weavers had
arrangements with merchant-middlemen from
big towns like Jodphur, Jaiselmer and Bikaner. The middlemen provided
weavers with dyed yarn, but paid very low wages for the weaving while
selling it at a good profit. Now, as members of UMBVS, weavers are paid at
the end of each month by a production manager who picks up finished work and
pays on a piece rate basis according to the size and detail of each design.
UMBVS then sells their products to stores in major Indian cities and also
Over a ten year
period, UMBVS has emerged as a vibrant, successful organization through the
energy and commitment of key people brought together during desperate
circumstances. Ram Chandra Barupal is one of the key figures. On my last day
in Phalodi I had opportunity to tape record a translated interview with him,
learning how his vision and effort in the face of many challenges are
integral to the Urmul story.
Ram Chandra came
from a village in Jaiselmer district where the stony, rough land was not
conducive to farming. He attended school until ninth grade, and then left
against the wishes of his parents because he saw that his family was poor
and he needed to earn some money. He did physical labour, including work in
the salt mines.
father did not weave, Ram Chandra used to sit at his great uncle's loom
whenever the old man stopped weaving to go to eat. Sometimes Ram Chandra
wove several inches, but got it wrong, or sometimes he broke a warp thread.
Afraid he had spoiled the weaving, Ram Chandra ran away when his great uncle
returned. But sometimes he got it right.
At sixteen he
decided to learn to weave. His family mocked him because they wanted him to
go to school. So Ram Chandra worked alone to figure out how to make a warp.
The first one took him seven days to make properly and then there were other
difficulties with the loom set up. After twelve days of weaving he completed
his first pattu which he sold in the market for 14 rupees. Out of that, ten
rupees paid for the wool.
persisted even though no one supported what he was doing. Weaving appealed
to him and he appreciated the historical and cultural aspect, knowing his
ancestors had also been weavers. He thought weaving was a better way to earn
money than doing tough physical work. Gradually he earned ten to fifteen
rupees for his pattus above the cost of the wool. He began to weave for
villagers who wanted his pattus while other weavers were selling outside the
village. Later he began buying wool in bulk and having other weavers make
pattus which he sold at fairs and outside markets.
Nobody in his
village knew how to do the traditional embroidery weave. So Ram Chandra
bought a woven pattu from a fair and over six months he perfected the
technique of inlaid weft. Gradually he became known for his unique pattus.
People could look at them and know that he had woven them. Since he was able
to weave fast and his quality was very good, he began to earn up to thirty
rupees for a pattu while others earned ten to twelve rupees.
When his family
was in debt, Ram Chandra stopped weaving for two years to earn more money.
He took out a loan to buy seed to sell. He sold food at hotels and at fairs.
He bought sheep and goats, reared them, and took them to sell in big markets
in Delhi. He invested in a fodder machine and made fodder for cattle. But he
didn't make a profit from any of this work. When the Government of India
sponsored a famine relief effort in the nearby Bikaner district in 1987, Ram
Chandra went to work there on a watershed management project, building a
small dam. Whenever he earned some money he returned to his village and his
loom to weave.
The Urmul Trust
The Urmul Trust,
an autonomous organization based in Lunkaransar in the Bikaner district,
began work in the field of primary health care and non-formal education
in 1986. A year later, Rajasthan experienced its worst drought of the
century and people faced near starvation. Under the leadership of Sanjay
Ghose, the Urmul Trust started an experiment in income generation based on
dormant wool-related crafts
of the region.
Local women knew
how to spin and the raw materials and equipment were available locally.
Urmul Trust arranged to sell all the yarn that the women produced to a
Government Khadi agency in the area. While six hundred women were employed
in thirty villages around Lunkaransar, the Urmul Trust accumulated fifteen
hundred kilograms of spun wool. However, the Khadi agency refused to buy the
yarn because it was not produced by a certified body within their
Sanjay Ghose and
others at Urmul Trust began looking for alternative places to sell the spun
wool. An itinerant salesman told them that the pattus he was selling had
been made by the weaver, Surjan Ram, of the village Bhojasar. They went to
meet Surjan Ram who was working with about ten weavers who filled orders for
Jodhpur merchant-middlemen. After
some discussion, a decision was made for Urmul Trust to supply wool to the
weavers and then purchase everything they made on a piece rate basis.
Dastkar, an NGO based in Delhi, helped Urmul Trust by arranging exhibitions
and selling the woven products at city bazaars.
Sanjay Ghose and
Tarun Salwar (who joined Urmul Trust after completing studies at London
School of Economics) saw the potential for a good income generation project
in the weaving of pattus using the two traditional embroidery styles of the
region, Bhojasari and Mhulani. They needed weavers who were able to do this,
but only a few in Bhojasar knew the embroidery style. Surjan Ram suggested
they go to the annual fair near Pokhran to meet weavers selling woven
products. At the fair, Surjan Ram put Sanjay Ghose and Tarun Salwar in
contact with two master weavers, who introduced them to another weaver who
knew the Mhulani embroidery style. This weaver told them about Ram Chandra,
who wove the Bhojasari embroidery style. In this way, a network began among
the weavers who later became the managers of UMBVS.
from Urmul Trust went to meet Ram Chandra. Impressed by his work, they asked
him to weave for them and Ram Chandra started right away. Others from Urmul
Trust and two designers from National Institute of Design (NID) made trips
to watch him weave. They asked him to come and work for them in Lunkaransar,
offering him a stipend of 450 rupees per month to learn new designs and
train other weavers. At the time, Ram Chandra was earning more than 800
rupees by sitting at his loom. So he told them, "I'll learn here. I've
learned myself. Give me a new design and I'll figure it out myself."
He refused to go to Lunkaransar but they persisted and came back two or
three times. When he did go, Urmul Trust again asked him to train local
weavers in Lunkaransar. He said, "No." There were weavers he knew in his
village that he wanted to train first. After teaching them for one year to
weave and do the embroidery styles, then he would be ready to train other
weavers. Urmul Trust agreed to his condition of training weavers in his own
from the Phalodi district went to live in Lunkaransar and Urmul Trust laid
the foundation for their knowledge about creating and running an
organization. The weavers learned the basics of marketing, accounting and
yarn dyeing. They learned to weave new embroidery style designs and products
designed by a student from NID. Surjan Ram began working as middleman for
Urmul Trust, taking wool to weavers in the villages and bringing finished
products back to Lunkaransar. In the first year, they trained fifty local
Few weavers in
the villages were clearly informed about the Urmul Trust. They thought it
was a rich international organization and they wanted to earn as much money
as possible. The weavers produced in quantity, but their quality suffered
and Urmul Trust accumulated a large amount of poorly made unsold products.
Urmul Trust called a meeting of weavers and 150 attended. Sanjay Ghose
explained Urmul's objectives to the weavers, saying, "You are poor people
who have been taken advantage of. We want to organize you into a group that
one day will stand on it's own" (Barupal interview, 1997).
problems had to be faced. Pattu weaving was traditionally done in wool, but
the market for new woollen products such as cushion covers was seasonal. And
people living in the cities of South India did not want wool furnishings
because even the winter months are not cold. With product and marketing
advice from Dastkar, the decision was made to weave with cotton in order to
reach a broader market and provide a steady income to weavers throughout the
There were also
problems with the yarn dyeing being done in the villages. Because the
colours bled, the popularity of products diminished and sales stagnated.
After Ram Chandra and several others were trained at Lunkaransar in the use
of new chemical dyes, the quality of yarn colours improved.
to do better in the market but there was still trouble with quality and with
sending products on time. Some sections of Urmul Trust complained about the
high costs of covering the weavers' annual losses. They said they could no
longer accept poor quality work. Sanjay Ghose and Tarun Salwar went from
village to village to talk with weavers, explaining that Urmul Trust was a
large institution with health and education programs and it was not
imperative for them to support the weavers. They decided to shut down the
weaving production for two months to emphasize the need to increase the
quality of finished work, stop taking things for granted, and begin to stand
on their own feet without depending on Urmul Trust. Only the very good
weavers and the trainers continued weaving during that time.
In 1989, a
meeting was called at Phalodi to discuss the formation of a weavers'
organization separate from the Urmul Trust. Subsequently, meetings were held
in the villages to encourage weavers to become active in strengthening the
organization. To instill a sense of ownership for the society, each weaver
was asked to contribute 1000 rupees as capital; profits and losses would be
shared by each member. According to Sanjay Ghose, UMBVS "was borne out of a
sense of desperation. They had to do something to get work otherwise they
would have been reduced to absolute penury" (Ghose, 1992). UMBVS was
registered formally and an elected executive committee was comprised of the
five weavers who had been working at Lunkaransar. These leaders went back to
Lunkaransar to learn more about running an organization. Each according to
their interests, they learned about stocks, accounting, and marketing.
leaders wanted to leave Lunkaransar and set up their organization in Phalodi,
a central location for the weaving villages of Jodhpur, Jaiselmer and
Bikaner districts. Sanjay Ghose and Tarun Salwar were keen for the weavers
to go on their own, but others at Urmul Trust did not support the idea.
Instead of waiting and possibly not having any support for the idea later,
the UMBVS leaders decided to leave for Phalodi. It turned out that half the
weavers wanted to work in Phalodi and the other half wanted to stay in
Lunkaransar. Some weavers mistrusted the leaders. They believed the leaders
would exploit them, earn all the money, and do nothing for them. To settle
the dispute, a compromise was reached and Urmul Trust sent four people to
Phalodi to work there, including a manager, a designer, and an accountant.
After a while
the UMBVS leaders realized that the managerial staff sent from Urmul Trust
had high expenses on marketing trips. The Urmul staff stayed in hotels that
suited their higher social background. When costs were totalled the leaders
realized how much profit was needed just to cover these expenses. They
decided to manage without the staff from Urmul.
weavers opposed this idea, continuing to mistrust the leaders and believing
that the presence of the Urmul Trust staff members ensured fairness.
resistance of some weavers in the villages, the leaders persisted. They
wanted the freedom to run the organization themselves. They knew they were
being blamed losses that were due to a management problem. So they sent the
staff from Urmul Trust back to Lunkaransar. Then the leaders were very
strict about their own expenditures because they wanted to prove UMBVS could
make a profit. They lived spartenly; they took buses, never taxis, and they
slept in inexpensive tariff hostels where sleeping was outside.
By the end of
the first year in Phalodi, UMBVS made a profit. After covering the Urmul
Trust losses of the previous year, the organization was able to distribute a
bonus to the weavers. Receiving a bonus for the first time, the weavers
finally believed in UMBVS and saw that the leaders could manage the
organization on their own.
working in a rented house in Phalodi, the weaver-managers were
discriminated against because of caste. UMBVS needed their own building,
especially for the training of weavers. A weavers' meeting was called and
the weavers decided to contribute to the purchase of land. UMBVS also
applied for and received international funding from Action Aid and Save the
Children's Fund. In 1994, the construction of Urmul Phalodi Weavers' Centre
was completed and UMBVS began to train more weavers.
Village of Karwa
After a morning
exploring the Urmul Weaver's Centre, David and I were greeted by Kunjan
Singh, returning from Bikaner. Kunjan had been hired by UMBVS as a designer
after completing her studies at the National Institute for Fashion
Technology eighteen months earlier. For her NIFT diploma project she had
documented the handwoven textiles produced by Urmul weavers and she had
created a design collection of home furnishings and apparel for production
us to go with several of the UMBVS managers to a meeting in the village of
Karwa, sixty kilometres or about an hour and a half jeep ride away. After
lunch, we travelled narrow roads through dry land, occasionally passing
clusters of houses, or women walking with large bundles of sticks for
firewood on their heads. At times we passed camels pulling a load of wood or
a large metal storage tank for water. These sights were continually new for
me. The spaciousness of the desert and clean air was a blessing in
comparison to the crowded polluted cities of Delhi and Ahmedabad.
During the ride,
Kunjan explained that a semi-annual meeting
was held in each village to discuss whatever issues or problems of weaving
production had occurred in the preceding six months. The UMBVS managers also
share information about new designs, markets, and initiatives. Kunjan said
the scope of UMBVS continues to expand and people from more villages want to
become members of the society. Before a new village joins UMBVS, a detailed
study is undertaken of the village, the people, the agriculture, economy,
incomes, and resources. However, the managers do not want the organization
to become too big and they train only five new weavers a year.
Karwa about four o'clock, we went directly to an area adjacent to the
weaving manager's pitloom, where a long warp stretched out from the thatched
roof shelter. The weaving manager and two elders greeted us. An Indian cot
was put out and David and I were told to sit there. Everyone else sat on a
carpet on the ground. We were served tea and Kunjan translated some of what
was being talked about. We learned that the meeting would be delayed until
weavers working in the fields returned at the end of the day.
we walk around. There were several connected buildings belonging to two
brothers and their families. A hard packed earth courtyard between a
circular mud house and a rectangular stone house had been swept
meticulously. We were introduced to the weaving manager's wife who greeted
us from behind her veil and spoke to us intently in Hindi. Children stood
nearby looking at us curiously.
I was attracted by a long blue warp stretching out from another weaving
site. We were welcomed to go inside to look at the loom. When David asked
about an object he saw hanging from the roof beams, the weaver took down a
five stringed instrument, unwrapped its cloth cover and began playing.
Within minutes a dozen young men appeared, some with small drums or hand
cymbals, and together they played and sang. Kunjan explained later that they
were singing a devotional song to Lord Ganesh who protects their weaving. It
was a song about a weaver preparing his warp and being ready to weave.
While the men
and boys were singing, I noticed the peg positioned a short distance from
the warp beam on the right hand side of loom. The peg is tied with a rope
that holds the warp in tension. Called the Viniak, another name for Lord
Ganesh, this peg is the most sacred part of the loom. Each time a weaver
starts to weave, he prays to the Viniak or touches it as a form of respect.
During festivals he puts jaggery (ground sugar that is considered
auspicious) on the Viniak as an offering of food (Singh interview, 1997).
Dusk arrived by
the time we returned to the meeting place and were told that the meeting
would not occur until late that evening. Ram Chandra said this was a good
time for me to put questions to the weavers. Five Karwa weavers sat with two
elders and my four companions from UrmulPhalodi. I was pleased to be given
this unexpected opportunity. I asked: What is different now that you are
weaving for Urmul? One young man said that now he has much more respect from
people in the village. He used to take construction work to earn money, but
now weaving lets him earn money and feel respected at the same time. An
elder expressed the satisfaction of being respected for their work, in
contrast to the sense of desperation that forced them to take anything in
pay. There used to be competition; if someone asked 10 rupees for a piece
another would undercut him by saying his weaving was only 8 rupees. Now
there is a fixed price for each piece which everyone knows. "We are a
community now," he said.
It was dark when
we ate dinner prepared by the weaving managers' wife. Then David, the
weaving training master, and I were driven back to Phalodi, leaving the
others to stay in the village of Karwa for a late night meeting. The next
day we joined them at a different village for another of the semi-annual meetings.
Challenges for Weavers
traditionally lower caste people who have been oppressed for a very long
time. According to Ram Chandra Bharupal, the most important achievement of
UMBVS has been to help weavers break out of the constraints of the caste
system. As they became united and formed a strong identity, they were able
to fight back. Over time, there has been a significant psychological change,
a feeling of relief and self-respect. Ram
Chandra said, "You don't have to drink water separately or pour it from a
vessel untouched. It is a change to your psyche that you are not looked down
upon so much anymore. It is no longer only the higher castes that are
worthy. Weavers can say, "We are useful too. We too can sit on the chair. We
can wear good clothes."
weavers' social and economic status in the villages has improved. Because of
their success in earning a decent living through weaving, weavers are viewed
differently by other villagers. Their voices are heard more often. Earlier,
weavers worked for the well-off higher
caste people. They took loans from them, and were indebted to them.
Under UMBVS a
new kind of prosperity has freed them from confinement of caste and low
status. Very few weavers are in debt, but if needed they can take out a loan
from the society. Women also can have savings and get loans. In order to
initiate a women's development program, the men who were weavers agreed to
put thirty percent of their monthly pay directly into the wives' accounts.
are prepared to meet more challenges. Ram Chandra said, "It is a changing,
dynamic process. When something demands that you learn, you set about
learning it." Recently they tackled the legalities and paperwork for
government permission to receive international funds directly rather than
indirectly through other organizations. The next challenge is to learn about
forming a company and getting an export license to be able to bypass the
middlemen in international sales.
continues to present major challenges. Although UMBVS has established
reliable contacts they still need to assess and expand their markets. To
fill export orders they have to maintain a high standard of quality because
products with small flaws are sent back. They have to be very specialized
and meet deadlines, and at the same time, take into account that weavers are
farming during the four months of agricultural season.
through consultation with the weavers, who feel in turn it is their wishes
being carried out, their organization being run. However, the UMBVS leaders
are continually trying to involve more weavers in the community development
process. Some weavers are initially concerned about their own welfare, but
discussions at annual meetings, awareness camps and exposure visits teach
them to see others' point of view.
commitment of time and energy is required in the operation of UMBVS to bring
the benefits of the organization to as many people in the villages as
possible. Given the hardships that arise from extreme climatic conditions,
rigid social system, and poor access to health and education programs, an
organization that helps villagers break the constraints of poverty is highly
UMBVS builds on
the skills and knowledge of weavers as a base for economic and community
development, and in the process, contributes to the preservation of local
culture, specifically, a unique form of handweaving. The Urmul Trust played
an important role in bringing together the best weavers of the region for an
initial income generation project, then giving the weavers access to
knowledge and information that eventually allowed them to manage UMBVS on
their own. Input from experts on product and design development and
marketing was also essential in moving toward the weavers' economic
The vision and
determination of Ram Chandra Barupal, along with the other weaver- managers,
has been instrumental in the formation and ongoing development of the
organization. The UMBVS managers have taken on immense challenges, keeping
the needs of the village weavers continually in mind. Initially, competition
made building trust and developing a sense of shared ownership a struggle.
Weavers and their families are learning to overcome attitudes that have
restricted them in the past; they are learning new ways of working and
living in their communities. By being participants in the opportunities
offered to them through UMBVS they are creating a conducive climate for
preserving handweaving and achieving new freedoms.
Chandra. Interview by C. Jongeward, translation by Ardash, tape recording.
November, 16, 1997. Phalodi, Rajasthan.
1992. The Urmul Experiment. In Report of the National Meet of the Crafts
Council of India. New Delhi.
and Singh, S. 1995. India's Artisans: A Status Report. Society for Rural,
Urban and Tribal Initiatives (SRUTI): New Delhi.
Interview by C. Jongeward, tape recording. November, 8, 1997. Phalodi,
Marusthali Bunkar Vikas Samiti. 1997. Unpublished report, photocopy.
was published in 1998 in Convergence,
publication of the International Council for Adult Education
acknowledges the financial assistance of the Government of India through the
India Studies Programme of the Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute.